A literature review published in Nutrition Metabolism, concluded that consuming whey protein supplements before or after weight training promotes protein synthesis and muscle growth. The amino acids from proteins act as building blocks for muscle hypertrophy. Also, specific amino acids, such as leucine act as chemical signals to turn on muscle protein synthesis. Whey protein supplements may decrease muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) due to weight training, and may allow athletes to increase training volume and prevent overtraining. However, other studies found that whey protein supplements do not promote muscle hypertrophy beyond the effects of training alone.