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CARBS: The Anabolic Nutrient


Carbohydrates can help you pack on muscle or body-fat depending on when, what and how much you eat. Here is what carbophobes and carboholics need to know about this important macronutrient for optimal physical gains.

Ask 10 bodybuilders about the importance of protein for muscle building and you will get clear support. Ask the same group about the value of carbohydrates and you will likely get 10 different answers. Among the macronutrients, no other has faced more scrutiny than carbohydrates. In fact, over the years nutritionists and diet specialists have spoken out of both sides of their mouths about carbs, claiming they are everything from beneficial (eg give you energy) to evil (eg make you fat) – a debate that leaves most of us confused about where carbs fit into a bodybuilding diet.

There are several reasons for the confusion and contradictory advice. First and foremost, not all carbohydrate sources are created equal, and different forms of carbs cause several different reactions in the body. Second, research is only just starting to unravel the benefits and caveats of carbohydrate ingestion in its many different forms. As a serious bodybuilder, you understand how critical it is to find the right balance of protein, fats and carbohydrates in your nutrition plan. This post will aim to remove some of the question marks surrounding carbs with a comprehensive overview of what, when and how to successfully include carbohydrates in your diet and supplement regimen, both to build muscle and lose body-fat.

Basic “Carboscience”
Carbohydrates are so named because they are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms (or hydrated carbon). These compounds serve many functional roles in the body beyond food energy. For example, ribose sugar comprises the backbone for the genetic RNA and is also important in the formation of many co-enzymes. This post will focus on specifically on carbohydrates as food or supplement sources for bodybuilders.

For a fast-acting source of energy, carbohydrates trump both fat and protein because sugars are more easily and readily metabolised than other macronutrients. The amount, type and rate of digestion of different carb sources dictate the level of blood glucose and amount of insulin released by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that delivers excess blood glucose to be stored in muscle cells and liver as glycogen. Once glycogen levels are topped up, the remaining blood glucose is converted to fat and stored in fat cells. The fact that insulin is integral to driving nutrients into skeletal muscle makes it one of the most potent anabolic agents and the focus of many research studies in exercise science. Insulin sensitivity (the body’s ability to use insulin) greatly increases in trained individuals, especially right after training. In contrast, insulin sensitivity declines in the evening.

Getting past all the science, the main point to deduce is that depending on the state of nutrition and timing of intake, high blood sugar and insulin levels could lead to either desirable or undesirable outcomes. Ideally you want to spike blood sugar and insulin levels at appropriate times to take advantage of energy storage and anabolic effects while avoiding fat storage.

“Carbotypes”
Monosaccharides
These are the simplest class of carbohydrates, as they can not be hydrolysed any further to form a simpler sugar. Simple car sources taste sweet and include glucose (dextrose) and fructose (fruit sugar). Glucose is absorbed high in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and thus elevates blood sugar and insulin rapidly and greater than any other carbohydrate form. Fructose, on the other hand, digests low in the GI tract, has a relatively minor impact on blood sugar levels and is considered a slow carbohydrate.

Disaccharides
These sugars are formed by the chemical combination of two monosaccharides. They also taste sweet and have a relatively fast absorption rate. The three common disaccharides include lactose (glucose-galactose or milk sugar), sucrose (glucose-fructose) and maltose (glucose-glucose). Maltose elevates blood sugar very rapidly (in fact, it does so faster than glucose) and sucrose only moderately increases blood sugar, whereas lactose digests slowly and has a small impact on blood sugar.

Polysaccharides
These are carbohydrates formed by bonding several chains of monosaccharides and or disaccharides. This form is commonly known as complex carbohydrates and includes starch, cellulose and glycogen. Starches are made up of multiple glucose units bonded together and are “plant sugars” produced by all green plants as an energy source. Common sources of starch are potatoes, wheat, corn and rice. Cellulose forms the structural components in plants and is relatively indigestible in humans – fibre is a form of cellulose. Most starches are considered medium-to-slow-digesting, however, exceptions exist, one which is waxy maize. The reason waxy maize absorbs so quickly is that it is a modified high-molecular-weight cornstarch that has los osmolality, which enables it to bypass the stomach a d het absorbed in the small intestines (causing a rapid rise in blood glucose).

The Glycemic Index
A common misconception is that all simple carbohydrates are fast sugars and all complex carbohydrates are slow sugars. This is definitely not the case. In fact, some complex carbohydrates (like maltodextrin) raise blood sugar and insulin levels rapidly, whereas a simple sugar like fructose has minimal impact on blood glucose. The variation is exactly why the glycemic index was created – to help you understand how different carbohydrate sources impact blood sugar. Using this tool is quite simple – all carbohydrate foods are ranked on a scale relative to glucose (a fast sugar, rated 100). Anything lower than 100 impacts blood sugar less than glucose and anything higher impacts it to a greater degree. One important point to note is that fats, fibre and, in some cases, proteins can significantly slow the speed at which fast (high-glycemic index) carbs elevate blood glucose. Keep this in mind when employing the strategies outlined next.

Carbohydrates and Bodybuilding
Carb-Based Muscle-Building Strategy
There is an abundance of scientific research supporting carbohydrate supplementation for muscle building. After exercise, muscle glycogen stores are depleted and insulin sensitivity is greatly increased, thus proving the perfect opportunity to spike by ingesting fast carbohydrates like dextrose, maltodextrin or waxy maize. Not only does the boost in insulin increase glycogen repletion, but it also serves to carry amino acids and nutrients into damaged muscle cells. Several studies indicate that post-training carbohydrate and protein supplements boost the anabolic response, augment recovery and promote increased gains in lean mass.

To take advantage of these muscle-building benefits, you should drink a post-workout shake containing a 2:1 ratio of high-glycemic index (fast) carbohydrates and fast-absorbing protein. The best combination is dextrose or maltodextrin and whey protein hydrolysate or isolate. Individuals who are sensitive to dextrose or maltodextrin can use waxy maize as an alternate fast-carb source. If you opt for waxy maize, just make sure to take it 15-20 minutes before your protein powder, as its impact on blood sugar may be slowed when taken at the same time as protein. In any case (depending on your body mass), you should strive to ingest approximately 60-100 grams of fast-absorbing carbs and 30-50 grams of fast-absorbing protein as soon as you finish working out. In general, you should aim to consume 1-1.5 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight per day (divided into six doses throughout the day, with one being 30 minutes prior to training and one being immediately after training).

Carb Loading
Carb loading in bodybuilding is primarily used as a strategy to make muscles look fuller and skin appear tighter while onstage, during a photo shoot or whenever you want your physique looking its absolute best. There are numerous diet and workout strategies used for carb loading in bodybuilding, but the common goal among all approaches is to create an environment of glycogen super-compensation in skeletal muscle. This state is achieved by depleting glycogen stores by high-repetition, long-duration workouts for days under carbohydrate restriction. Once carbohydrate depletion is achieved, the diet switches to short-term, high-carbohydrate intake, during which the body restore glycogen in muscle to a higher level than before depletion. From a performance standpoint super-compensation provides more glycogen for subsequent exercise bouts, but (important for bodybuilding) it also results an increase in muscle cell volume (cell volumisation). This boost in cell volume occurs because each molecule of glycogen takes four molecules of water into the cell, resulting in less subcutaneous (under the skin) water and fuller-looking muscles, which give the body a leaner/harder appearance.

Here is an example of carb-loading strategy: For 3-5 days, deplete muscle glycogen stores by decreasing your carbohydrate intake by 50% or more (replace calories by increasing your fat intake) and train using full-body, high-rep workouts. After glycogen depletion, double your original carb intake for the three days preceding your competition, photo shoot or special event. Since each individual responds differently to carb loading, you should experiment with this strategy in the off season to know exactly how many days you need to deplete/super-compensate glycogen and look and feel your best.

Carb Cycling
This is a relatively new strategy that aims at maintaining or building lean mass while losing body-fat, as it combines the ababolism-boosting benefits of carbohydrate ingestion and the fat-burning advantages of low-carbohydrate diets. In a quest to get lean, many nutrition plans are centered on low-carb strategies to force the use of body-fat as fuel. However, there are theories suggesting that staying on a low-carb-diet for extended periods can lead to a decline in leptin levels. Leptin is a hormone that staves off hunger while simultaneously keeping your metabolic rate elevated. By going through alternating periods of low-carb and high-carb dieting, you can prevent drops in leptin levels, maintain hunger control and ensure your metabolism stays revved.

Carb cycling also provides a psychological advantage over strict low-carb diets. Knowing you will be able to eat carbs again in a few days makes getting through the low-carb days much more manageable. Another problem with strict low-carb diets is that they force you to limit fresh fruit and whole grains, two food sources that provide a number of health pulses like antioxidants and phytonutrients.

As you can see, carbs serve a major role in bodybuilding, from bulking up to the final touches in your contest preparation. The key to using them effectively is to have a basic understanding of how they affect the body based on ingestion timing, amount and impact on blood glucose.


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Benefits of Fasting


Many people observe fasting as a religious obligation but only few know the health benefits it has. Fasting is a good practice, if properly implemented. It promotes elimination of toxins from the body, reduces blood sugar and fat stores. It promotes healthy eating habits and boost immunity.

Fasting Promotes Weight Loss
Fasting promotes rapid weight loss. It reduces the store of fats in the body. However, fasting is not a good weight loss strategy. Reducing fat and sugar intake, and increasing fruits and rest are better measures to achieve weight reduction.

Fasting Reduces Blood Sugar
Fasting increases breakdown of glucose so that the body can get energy. It reduces production of insulin. This rests the pancreas. Glucagon is produced to facilitate the breakdown of glucose. The outcome of fasting is a reduction in blood sugar.

Fasting Promotes A Healthy Diet
It has been observed that fasting reduces cravings for processed foods. It promotes desire for natural foods, especially water and fruits. This is one way in which fasting promotes a healthy lifestyle.

Fasting Boosts Immunity
When an individual is on a balanced diet in between fasts, this can boost immunity. Elimination of toxins and reduction in fat store also helps the body. When individuals take fruits to break a fast, they increase the body’s store of essential vitamins and minerals. Vitamin A and E are good antioxidants readily available in fruits. They help to boost immunity.

Fasting Increases Fat Breakdown
The first response of the body to fasting is break down of glucose. When the store of glucose is exhausted, ketosis begins. This is breakdown of fat to release energy. The fats stored in the kidney and muscles are broken down to release energy.

When Not To Fast?
If you are severely underweight, diabetic, pregnant, have a serious medical condition, or recovering from surgery, then you really shouldn’t fast without first consulting your physician.


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Leucine Improves Blood Sugar Control


Leucine is a branched-chain amino acid that serves as a building block for new proteins, and is a key signalling chemical for protein synthesis and blood sugar regulation. A study in Nutrition Metabolism, conducted by Columbia University in New York City, found that leucine improved blood sugar control in obese and diabetic mice. The mice were given leucine supplements in their drinking water for 8 months. Leucine stimulates insulin release by the pancreas and promotes the production of the amino acid glutamine, which is important for immune system health. Long-term supplementation of leucine improves the efficiency of insulin metabolism in people with type II diabetes.


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Alpha-Lipoic Acid Promotes Caloric Expenditure


Lipoic acid supplements increase the size and number of mitochondria, according to a study from the China Agricultural University in Beijing. The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cells that provide the body’s energy needs, determine endurance exercise capacity, and greatly influence lifespan. Lipoic acid protects the mitochondria from highly reactive free radicals produced naturally from during metabolism. It also helps to stabilise blood sugar metabolism. Supplementing lipoic acid in aging mice improved energy metabolism and increased cell mitochondria production. It also improved body composition, blood sugar regulation, and increased energy expenditure and fat-free weight (lean mass). Lipoic acid, also known as alpha-lipoic acid, might be an effective anit-aging supplement that promotes metabolic health.


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Road to Recovery


Making the right moves after a workout is critical for growth.

After every workout there is a 45 minute window when your muscles act like a sponges and are able to suck any available nutrients in your bloodstream that will aid in your recovery. This is why one of the best times to take a supplement is right after your workout is over. Combine the right nutrients, and you can maximise muscle growth and recovery even further. The top 3 to make sure you stack are:

1) Creatine
Study after study shows that creatine can easily add 10 pounds of lean muscle to your frame and boost muscle strength by a good 10% or more. The proven compound also pulls water into muscle cells which stretches them and turns on processes that lead to long-term muscle growth.
2) Dextrose
This sugar has the exact same structure as you blood sugar (glucose). This means it requires no digestion and basically gets absorbed straight from your gut into your bloodstream. This helps to spike insulin production, opening tiny “doors” on muscle fibres that allow nutrients to rush inside.
3) Alpha Lipoic Acid
A powerful antioxidant that can aid muscle recovery, alpha lipoic acid scavenges free radicals from your bloodstream. It also provides another benefit by enhancing insulin’s action at the muscle. This makes it more potent for pushing glucose, creatine and amino acids into your muscle fibres.