Grape juice contains a high level of fructose. Fructose is one of the worst carbohydrate sources for bodybuilders, especially in things like fruit juices. Specifically spiking insulin post-workout can actually be detrimental. Post-workout, starving muscles are wide open to receiving nutrients for repair and growth, and when we flood our bodies with simple carbohydrates the muscles quickly slam the door shut. Consuming BCAAs, protein and some fat is preferential immediately following a workout.
Carbohydrates can help you pack on muscle or body-fat depending on when, what and how much you eat. Here is what carbophobes and carboholics need to know about this important macronutrient for optimal physical gains.
Ask 10 bodybuilders about the importance of protein for muscle building and you will get clear support. Ask the same group about the value of carbohydrates and you will likely get 10 different answers. Among the macronutrients, no other has faced more scrutiny than carbohydrates. In fact, over the years nutritionists and diet specialists have spoken out of both sides of their mouths about carbs, claiming they are everything from beneficial (eg give you energy) to evil (eg make you fat) – a debate that leaves most of us confused about where carbs fit into a bodybuilding diet.
There are several reasons for the confusion and contradictory advice. First and foremost, not all carbohydrate sources are created equal, and different forms of carbs cause several different reactions in the body. Second, research is only just starting to unravel the benefits and caveats of carbohydrate ingestion in its many different forms. As a serious bodybuilder, you understand how critical it is to find the right balance of protein, fats and carbohydrates in your nutrition plan. This post will aim to remove some of the question marks surrounding carbs with a comprehensive overview of what, when and how to successfully include carbohydrates in your diet and supplement regimen, both to build muscle and lose body-fat.
Carbohydrates are so named because they are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms (or hydrated carbon). These compounds serve many functional roles in the body beyond food energy. For example, ribose sugar comprises the backbone for the genetic RNA and is also important in the formation of many co-enzymes. This post will focus on specifically on carbohydrates as food or supplement sources for bodybuilders.
For a fast-acting source of energy, carbohydrates trump both fat and protein because sugars are more easily and readily metabolised than other macronutrients. The amount, type and rate of digestion of different carb sources dictate the level of blood glucose and amount of insulin released by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that delivers excess blood glucose to be stored in muscle cells and liver as glycogen. Once glycogen levels are topped up, the remaining blood glucose is converted to fat and stored in fat cells. The fact that insulin is integral to driving nutrients into skeletal muscle makes it one of the most potent anabolic agents and the focus of many research studies in exercise science. Insulin sensitivity (the body’s ability to use insulin) greatly increases in trained individuals, especially right after training. In contrast, insulin sensitivity declines in the evening.
Getting past all the science, the main point to deduce is that depending on the state of nutrition and timing of intake, high blood sugar and insulin levels could lead to either desirable or undesirable outcomes. Ideally you want to spike blood sugar and insulin levels at appropriate times to take advantage of energy storage and anabolic effects while avoiding fat storage.
These are the simplest class of carbohydrates, as they can not be hydrolysed any further to form a simpler sugar. Simple car sources taste sweet and include glucose (dextrose) and fructose (fruit sugar). Glucose is absorbed high in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and thus elevates blood sugar and insulin rapidly and greater than any other carbohydrate form. Fructose, on the other hand, digests low in the GI tract, has a relatively minor impact on blood sugar levels and is considered a slow carbohydrate.
These sugars are formed by the chemical combination of two monosaccharides. They also taste sweet and have a relatively fast absorption rate. The three common disaccharides include lactose (glucose-galactose or milk sugar), sucrose (glucose-fructose) and maltose (glucose-glucose). Maltose elevates blood sugar very rapidly (in fact, it does so faster than glucose) and sucrose only moderately increases blood sugar, whereas lactose digests slowly and has a small impact on blood sugar.
These are carbohydrates formed by bonding several chains of monosaccharides and or disaccharides. This form is commonly known as complex carbohydrates and includes starch, cellulose and glycogen. Starches are made up of multiple glucose units bonded together and are “plant sugars” produced by all green plants as an energy source. Common sources of starch are potatoes, wheat, corn and rice. Cellulose forms the structural components in plants and is relatively indigestible in humans – fibre is a form of cellulose. Most starches are considered medium-to-slow-digesting, however, exceptions exist, one which is waxy maize. The reason waxy maize absorbs so quickly is that it is a modified high-molecular-weight cornstarch that has los osmolality, which enables it to bypass the stomach a d het absorbed in the small intestines (causing a rapid rise in blood glucose).
The Glycemic Index
A common misconception is that all simple carbohydrates are fast sugars and all complex carbohydrates are slow sugars. This is definitely not the case. In fact, some complex carbohydrates (like maltodextrin) raise blood sugar and insulin levels rapidly, whereas a simple sugar like fructose has minimal impact on blood glucose. The variation is exactly why the glycemic index was created – to help you understand how different carbohydrate sources impact blood sugar. Using this tool is quite simple – all carbohydrate foods are ranked on a scale relative to glucose (a fast sugar, rated 100). Anything lower than 100 impacts blood sugar less than glucose and anything higher impacts it to a greater degree. One important point to note is that fats, fibre and, in some cases, proteins can significantly slow the speed at which fast (high-glycemic index) carbs elevate blood glucose. Keep this in mind when employing the strategies outlined next.
Carbohydrates and Bodybuilding
Carb-Based Muscle-Building Strategy
There is an abundance of scientific research supporting carbohydrate supplementation for muscle building. After exercise, muscle glycogen stores are depleted and insulin sensitivity is greatly increased, thus proving the perfect opportunity to spike by ingesting fast carbohydrates like dextrose, maltodextrin or waxy maize. Not only does the boost in insulin increase glycogen repletion, but it also serves to carry amino acids and nutrients into damaged muscle cells. Several studies indicate that post-training carbohydrate and protein supplements boost the anabolic response, augment recovery and promote increased gains in lean mass.
To take advantage of these muscle-building benefits, you should drink a post-workout shake containing a 2:1 ratio of high-glycemic index (fast) carbohydrates and fast-absorbing protein. The best combination is dextrose or maltodextrin and whey protein hydrolysate or isolate. Individuals who are sensitive to dextrose or maltodextrin can use waxy maize as an alternate fast-carb source. If you opt for waxy maize, just make sure to take it 15-20 minutes before your protein powder, as its impact on blood sugar may be slowed when taken at the same time as protein. In any case (depending on your body mass), you should strive to ingest approximately 60-100 grams of fast-absorbing carbs and 30-50 grams of fast-absorbing protein as soon as you finish working out. In general, you should aim to consume 1-1.5 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight per day (divided into six doses throughout the day, with one being 30 minutes prior to training and one being immediately after training).
Carb loading in bodybuilding is primarily used as a strategy to make muscles look fuller and skin appear tighter while onstage, during a photo shoot or whenever you want your physique looking its absolute best. There are numerous diet and workout strategies used for carb loading in bodybuilding, but the common goal among all approaches is to create an environment of glycogen super-compensation in skeletal muscle. This state is achieved by depleting glycogen stores by high-repetition, long-duration workouts for days under carbohydrate restriction. Once carbohydrate depletion is achieved, the diet switches to short-term, high-carbohydrate intake, during which the body restore glycogen in muscle to a higher level than before depletion. From a performance standpoint super-compensation provides more glycogen for subsequent exercise bouts, but (important for bodybuilding) it also results an increase in muscle cell volume (cell volumisation). This boost in cell volume occurs because each molecule of glycogen takes four molecules of water into the cell, resulting in less subcutaneous (under the skin) water and fuller-looking muscles, which give the body a leaner/harder appearance.
Here is an example of carb-loading strategy: For 3-5 days, deplete muscle glycogen stores by decreasing your carbohydrate intake by 50% or more (replace calories by increasing your fat intake) and train using full-body, high-rep workouts. After glycogen depletion, double your original carb intake for the three days preceding your competition, photo shoot or special event. Since each individual responds differently to carb loading, you should experiment with this strategy in the off season to know exactly how many days you need to deplete/super-compensate glycogen and look and feel your best.
This is a relatively new strategy that aims at maintaining or building lean mass while losing body-fat, as it combines the ababolism-boosting benefits of carbohydrate ingestion and the fat-burning advantages of low-carbohydrate diets. In a quest to get lean, many nutrition plans are centered on low-carb strategies to force the use of body-fat as fuel. However, there are theories suggesting that staying on a low-carb-diet for extended periods can lead to a decline in leptin levels. Leptin is a hormone that staves off hunger while simultaneously keeping your metabolic rate elevated. By going through alternating periods of low-carb and high-carb dieting, you can prevent drops in leptin levels, maintain hunger control and ensure your metabolism stays revved.
Carb cycling also provides a psychological advantage over strict low-carb diets. Knowing you will be able to eat carbs again in a few days makes getting through the low-carb days much more manageable. Another problem with strict low-carb diets is that they force you to limit fresh fruit and whole grains, two food sources that provide a number of health pulses like antioxidants and phytonutrients.
As you can see, carbs serve a major role in bodybuilding, from bulking up to the final touches in your contest preparation. The key to using them effectively is to have a basic understanding of how they affect the body based on ingestion timing, amount and impact on blood glucose.
Weight loss is extremely difficult because reduced caloric intake increases hunger sensations and slows metabolic rate. A low-calorie, mixed diet triggers protein mobilisation for fuel which results in muscle wasting. A review of the literature by Suzanne Devkota and Donald Layman, concluded that substituting protein for fat and carbohydrate in the diet reduces insulin levels, and suppresses hunger and food cravings. Protein, particularly sources high in the amino acid leucine, triggers protein synthesis and helps maintain muscle mass during periods of caloric restriction. People trying to lose weight should consume protein, particularly during breakfast and lunch. This will help curb appetite and maintain muscle mass.
Improve recovery and increase muscle growth with these 7 post-workout supplements.
1) Whey Protein
A high-quality milk protein that contains all the amino acids the body requires for muscle protein synthesis.
Whey protein breaks down fast upon ingestion, shuttling its amino acids into the bloodstream to hit your muscles quickly. Research has shown that consuming whey protein after training promotes muscle protein synthesis and reduces protein degradation (breakdown), thus stimulating muscle tissue repair and growth.
Take 20-30 grams immediately after training. Choose a whey powder that contains whey protein hydrolysates (whey protein broken down into smaller fragments for even faster digestion) or whey protein isolate.
2) Casein Protein
Although it is not a fast-digesting protein, this other milk protein is a perfect complement to help boost recovery following your workouts.
Casein protein is a slow digesting because it forms a gel in the gut, which results in the amino acids being released slowly into the bloodstream. Since it enters the bloodstream slowly, it was originally believed to have very little immediate impact on protein synthesis. However, newer research shows that after workouts, casein does, in fact, boost protein synthesis and also has a powerful effect in suppressing protein breakdown, both key elements in muscle growth. Research suggests that to tip the balance in your favour, supplement with both whey and casein proteins after training.
Choose a casein protein that contains micellar casein (the slowest-digesting casein) and add 20-30 grams casein top your post-wrokout whey protein shake.
3) Branched-Chain Amino Acids
The term branched-chain amino acids refer to leucine, isoleucine and valine, the most important aminos for repairing and building muscle tissue. BCAAs make up approximately one-third of muscle protein.
BCCAs offer a multitude of benefits, including growing muscle, reducing delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) increasing energy and blunting cortisol (a catabolic hormone). Intense exercise causes a rise in cortisol, which can inhibit testosterone and lead to muscle protein breakdown. Research shows that supplementing with BCAAs, particularly at the time of muscle breakdown (such as during and after workouts), is the best insurance against catabolism.
Results from one study showed that subjects who supplemented with amino acids did not experience losses in muscle strength following a period of high-volume resistance training. The results were attributed to the anticatabolic effects that BCAAs promote in the body.
Because leucine is the key amino acid for turning on protein synthesis in muscle cells, look for BCAA products that provide leucine at a ratio of 2:1 per dose of isoleucine and valine. Take 5-10 grams of BCAA immediately after training with your post-work out shake.
Creatine is made up of three amino acids, arginine, glycine and methionine. The kidneys and pancreas produce them naturally, and the liver combines them to make creatine. However, the body only produces about 1-1.5 grams, not nearly enough to support the muscle-building efforts of a hard trainer.
Creatine has been the subject of hundreds of research studies, primarily because of its direct impact on increasing muscle mass, strength and power. It has been shown to trigger protein synthesis and minimise protein breakdown, because it creates an osmotic gradient whereby water is pulled into muscle cells (which is a signal for anabolism). Some evidence also suggests creatine may act as a lactic acid buffer, which can improve recovery time. Creatine has also been found to increase levels of insulinlike growth factor-1 in muscles, which is critical for stimulating growth.
Take 2-3 grams in the form of creatine monohydrate, creatine malate, creatine hydrochloride ore creatine alpha-ketoglutarate with your protein shake immediately after training, a time when creatine will rapidly be taken up by muscle cells and the boost in IGF-1 will promote further growth.
5) Carb Powder
Choosing a carb powder used to be easy, you simply bought one brand or another of glucose. However, ongoing research has given light to a range of new products.
Dextrose is a glucose, the simplest carb. It is in the exact form your body needs, your body doesn’t have to break it down to use it. It is a monosaccharide, which is about 70-80% as sweet as table sugar. It has a glycaemic index rating of 100 and is used for energy or refuelling after a workout. It is highly soluble in water and mixes easily.
Maltodextin is polysaccharide (a complex carbohydrate) usually produced form corn or potato starch. Although its a “complex” carb, the chemical structure is such that it can break down rapidly, thus digesting and absorbing very quickly to help you re-fuel post workout. In fact, its digested faster than regular table sugar, and has a GI rating of 105.
Vitargo is a patented complex carb formula typically made form barley. Although the molecules that make up vitargo are a lot heavier and larger than those in other carbs, it has very low osmolality, which effectively means it can pass through the stomach faster, about 80% faster than dextrose. Vitargo is absorbed and assimilated faster after workouts, which minimises the risk of stomach discomfort (eg. bloating).
The fast absorption of certain carb powders makes them an ideal post-workout carb source that can rapidly elevate insulin levels and replace glycogen in trained muscle. Since insulin is highly anabolic, carb powders can promote muscle gain and recovery without fat accumulation when taken immediately after training.
A good post-workout shake contains about a 1:2 ratio of protein to a high-glycaemic (fast-digesting) carbs. Add 40-100 grams of carb powder to your post-workout shake.
This amino acid is central to both immune system regulation and muscle function, and is one of the most plentiful aminos found in the body.
During intense training, muscle glutamine levels drop sharply. Supplementing with glutamine not only stimulates immune function, but research has shown it decreases inflammation and protects muscle cells from the damage caused by hard training. It also aids muscle growth by by increasing levels of leucine in muscle fibres, helping suppress the production and circulation of cortisol, and maintain cell volume and hydration. By pushing water into muscle cells, glutamine helps to speed up recovery and encourage anabolism. In addition, research has demonstrated the ability of glutamine to drastically increase growth hormone levels. One study showed a meaningful increase from supplementing with as little as 2 grams of glutamine.
Add 5-10 grams of glutamine to your post-workout shake.
7) Alpha-Lipoic Acid
This antioxidant is made by the body and found in every cell, where it helps turn glucose into energy,
ALA mimics the effects of insulin, bolstering the uptake of amino acids and creatine into muscle cells. One study showed that subjects who consumed ALA with creatine and a high-glycaemic carb had greater increases in muscle creatine levels than those who took just creatine and a high-glycaemic carb, or creatine alone.
Take 300-500 milligrams along with your protein, creatine and high-glycaemic carbs post-workout.